May 21, 2021: At the weather warms, daylight and twilight lengthen to diminish nighttime hours. As the summer solstice approaches far northern latitudes do not have periods of darkness. From the most northern latitudes, the sun does not set – the Land of the Midnight Sun.
by Jeffrey L. Hunt
At this time of the year, children object about preparing to sleep for the night when “there’s light outside!”
At the mid-northern latitudes, daylight lengthens as the weather warms. From Chicago at the beginning of May, daylight was a few minutes longer than 14 hours. Complete natural darkness was about 6 hours, 20 minutes long. The remainder of the 24-hour period, over 3 hours, 30 minutes, was twilight, split between the period before sunrise and after sunset.
Nighttime is defined to be when the sun is not in the sky – twilight and darkness together.
Twilight is from sunlight illuminating the upper atmosphere after sundown.
By May’s end, daylight lasts, 15 hours; twilight, 4 hours, 12 minutes; and darkness, 4 hours, 48 minutes.
By mid-June, daylight lengthens another 13 minutes and twilight adds another 11 minutes. So that’s 19 hours, 36 minutes where the sky has some natural illumination. The sum of the two periods is longer for latitudes farther north.
During June, from north of latitude 48.6°, twilight does not end after sundown. There’s only daylight and twilight. There is no darkness. From north of latitude 65.7° only daylight occurs – the Land of the midnight sun, where the sun does not set.
On the summer solstice, June 20th this year in Chicago, morning twilight begins at 3:04 a.m. CDT. Sunrise occurs at 5:16 a.m. CDT, followed by sundown at 8:29 p.m. CDT. Evening twilight ends at 10:41 p.m. For locations farther west in their time zones, the times could shift by and hour or more.
For Sawyer, Michigan, about 50 miles across Lake Michigan and a time zone away, morning twilight begins at 3:59 a.m. EDT, while evening twilight ends at 11:37 p.m. EDT.
The result of longer daylight during late spring and early summer also adds longer periods of twilight and shorter darkness periods, the opposite of what the northern hemisphere experiences near the winter solstice.
“Bedtime is bedtime,” is the reply to those youngsters wanting to stay awake until the sky is dark.
During 2021 into 2022, Venus passes Mars three times for a triple conjunction. The first occurs on July 12, 2021. The others occur during early 2022, followed by a close approach of the two planets.
July 6, 2021: This is the second bright planet – planet opposition this month. Venus and Saturn are in opposite directions from Earth. Venus sets about the time that Saturn rises. After this date, Venus and Saturn together are in the evening sky until early 2022.
June 19, 2021: The waxing moon appears with Spica in the southwestern sky during the early evening hours.
June 26 – June 30, 2021: The bright gibbous moon passes Jupiter and Saturn in the morning sky before sunrise. Observe that the moon is in a different spot each morning, farther east toward the impending sunrise.
June 15, 2021: The moon is with the Sickle of Leo this evening. Step outside about an hour after sunset to find the crescent moon that is about 30% illuminated over one-third of the way up in the west.