During January 2020, Mars is joined by Jupiter in the morning. Saturn is at its solar conjunction and invisible to us because of the sun’s glare.
Click here for our article about the 2020 Great Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.
Jupiter and Saturn are in the same region of the sky. Jupiter is among the brightest “stars” in the night sky while Saturn is dimmer. Mars varies in its brightness. When near Earth later this year, it outshines Jupiter, but during January it is dimmer in the eastern sky, and easily overlooked.
Jupiter makes its first morning appearance late in the month, joining Mars as morning planets. Saturn passes its solar conjunction near mid-month and slowly crawls into the morning sky.
- January 5: Mars is less than one-third of the way up in the sky about one hour before sunrise. The planet is not very bright compared to our expectations. It is near the stars of Scorpius. This morning it is to the upper right of the star Graffias. Compare Mars’ brightness and color to Antares, sometimes known as the “Rival of Mars.” During the next several mornings, watch Mars move past Graffias and far above Antares.
- January 7: Jupiter is beginning to move into the morning sky, but it rises only about 30 minutes before sunrise. Look for it later in the month.
- January 13: Saturn is at its solar conjunction. It is hidden in the sun’s glare. We won’t see it for several weeks.
- January 20: This morning, the old moon is above Mars. Notice how far Mars has moved during the past several mornings. During bright twilight, about 30 minutes before sunrise, Jupiter is just above the southeast horizon. You’ll need a binocular to see it, as well as the crescent moon and Mars.
- January 22: Forty-five minutes before sunrise, Jupiter is about 4° up in the southeast. The crescent moon (27.2d, 6%) is 7° to the upper right of Jupiter.
- January 24: Saturn rises during bright twilight and its very difficult to see.
- January 28: About 45 minutes before sunrise, Jupiter is low in the southeast. Use a binocular to locate Mars with Antares to its right.
Next Month, Saturn becomes visible as Jupiter and Saturn head toward their once-in-a-generation Great Conjunction on December 21, 2020.