In a cold, clear sky with a gibbous moon, morning planets Jupiter and Mars shine from the southeastern sky. Jupiter and Saturn are emerging from their recent solar conjunctions and heading for their Great Conjunction later in the year.
This morning, Mars is nearly 18° to the upper right of Jupiter. During the next 5 weeks watch Mars march eastward compared to the starry background and pass Jupiter on March 20 and Saturn, March 31.
Linkto summary about February 2020’s morning planets.
Here’s the detailed note for this morning:
February 14: One hour before sunrise, the moon (20.6 days past New, 66% illuminated), nearly 36° up in the south-southwest is midway from Spica to Zubeneschamali (β Lib, m = 2.6) and about 2° to the left of Kappa Virginis (κ Vir, m = 4.2). Use a binocular to locate the dimmer stars this morning. Jupiter passes Pi Sagittarii (π Sgr, m =2.9), 1.4° to the lower right of the star. Mars is nearly 18° to the upper right of Jupiter, 1.6° to the upper right of 4 Sagittarii (4 Sgr, m = 4.1) – the western gateway to the bright nebulae in Sagittarius. Watch Mars move through this region during the next several mornings. The challenge is to find a reasonable time to view Mars among the nebulae so that it has enough altitude, but when the sky is still dark enough to find the faint clouds. Forty-five minutes before sunrise, Jupiter is over 10° in altitude in the southeastern sky. Saturn is about 10° to Jupiter’s lower left, nearly 6° in altitude.
On March 20, faster moving Mars overtakes and passes bright Jupiter in the morning’s southeastern sky.
One hour before sunrise, Jupiter is over 16° in altitude above the southeast horizon. This morning is the Jupiter – Mars conjunction! Mars is 0.6° to the lower right of Jupiter.
This morning the Saturn – Mars gap is 7.1°; the Jupiter – Saturn gap, 7.0°.
The next Jupiter – Mars conjunction is May 29, 2022 in the morning sky. At that conjunction the sky has 4 bright planets – Venus, Jupiter, Mars, and Saturn – in the southeastern sky. The moon is nearby, a few days before the closest Jupiter – Mars passage.
As Mars closes in on Jupiter for a conjunction on March 20, the moon joins the scene two days before the conjunction. The lunar crescent makes a pretty triangle with Jupiter and Mars. Jupiter is the brighter planet. The trio makes a small triangle, the moon is 2.4° to the lower right of Jupiter and 2.2° to the lower left of Mars.
Look for the planets and the moon one hour before sunrise in the southeast.
The three bright outer planets – Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars – shine in the southeastern sky before sunrise. Look about one hour before sunrise.
On the chart above, the planets span nearly 19°. Jupiter is the brightest planet in the group. Saturn is to the lower left, near the horizon. Mars, dimmer than Saturn, appears to the upper Jupiter’s upper left.
The charts on this page identify two stars that can be used to note how the planets are moving. The stars are not as bright as the planets, but they make an unmoving background to watch the eastward motion of the planets.
Each morning the scene changes with Mars getting closer to Jupiter. Jupiter slowly ambles toward Saturn for the Great Conjunction that occurs in December 2020.
On March 15, Jupiter is over 15° up in the southeast. The Red Planet, only 2.7° to Jupiter’s upper right, continues to close the gap on the Giant Planet. Saturn is 7.4° to Jupiter’s lower left. The three planets span 10.1° this morning.
Jupiter and Mars in the morning sky during early February 2020
Moon Eclipses Mars on February 18
Saturn joins Jupiter and Mars later in the month
Moon passes Jupiter (Feb 19) and Saturn (Feb 20)
As Jupiter and Saturn head toward their once every generation Great Conjunction on December 21, 2020, they appear higher in the morning sky during February.
During February 2020, Jupiter becomes easier to see in the morning sky with dimmer Mars. The Red Planet is to the lower left of the star Antares. The chart above shows the sky on February 5. A more detailed note for the morning:
February 5: Saturn rises at Nautical Twilight. One hour before sunrise, Mars, over 17° up in the southeast, is 0.9° to the upper left of 44 Ophiuchi (44 Oph, m = 4.2). Look for Jupiter low in the southeast, about 5° up in the sky.
The moon moves close to the planets after mid-month. As sunrise approaches in the Central Time Zone, the moon moves near Mars. Just after sunrise from the Chicago area, the moon covers (occults) Mars. An occultation is a type of eclipse that does not involve the sun. Here’s the detailed note:
February 18: One hour before sunrise, the crescent moon (24.6 days past the New phase, 24% illuminated), about 17° up in the southeast, is 0.4° to the right of Mars. If you look earlier, when the moon is lower in the darker sky, the lunar crescent is between M8 and M20. This is clearly a bit of a stretch to have a good view of the nebulae, the moon, and Mars. The objects’ low altitudes and the approaching twilight make this a challenge. Notice that Mars is 1.5° to the upper right of 1 Sagittarii (1 Sgr, m =4.9). Watch it approach and pass the star during the next few mornings. Jupiter is to the lower left of the Moon – Mars pair, nearly 11° up in the southeast. Saturn is to the lower left of Jupiter, likely lost behind terrestrial obstructions. As sunrise approaches, the crescent moon inches toward Mars. If you can track Mars into a brighter sky, the moon occults it a few minutes after 6 a.m. CST. Observers in the Western U.S. see the moon occult Mars in a darker sky.
As the mornings progress Saturn appears higher in the sky and easier to see.
The moon passes Jupiter on February 19 and Saturn the following morning. Find a location with a clear horizon to the southeast. On February 19, the moon is to the right of Jupiter. The next morning the lunar crescent to the lower right of Saturn Here are detailed notes for those mornings:
February 19: One hour before sunrise, the old moon (25.6d, 16%) is 10° up in the southeast. It is 4.0° to the right of bright Jupiter. The planet is 1.7° to the lower left of Pi Sagittarii. Saturn is over 9° to the lower left of Jupiter. Dimmer Mars, over 16° up in the south-southeast, is nearly 12° to the upper right of the thin lunar crescent. The planet is 0.8° to the upper right of 1 Sagittarii. Watch Mars approach Kaus Borealis (λ Sgr, m =2.8), the star at the top of the lid of the Teapot of Sagittarius. This morning Mars is nearly 5° to the upper right of the star.
February 20: One hour before sunrise, Mars is over 16° in altitude in the south-southeast. With a binocular observe that it is 0.2° to the upper right of 1 Sagittarii. This morning Mars is 4.2° to the upper right of Kaus Borealis. Bright Jupiter, 10° up in the southeast, is nearly 15° to the lower left of the Red Planet. The Giant Planet is 1.9° to the lower left of Pi Sagittarii. About fifteen minutes later, the moon (26.6d, 9%) is 2.6° to the right of Saturn and 9.0° to the lower left of Jupiter. Saturn is over 7° up in the southeast.
For those wanting to read the detailed notes for each day, here is my summary for February 2020.
This chart shows the summary of the setting of the naked-eye planets, moon, and bright stars near the ecliptic, the plane of the solar system, for 2020. The chart shows the setting of these celestial bodies compared to sunset for time intervals up to five hours after the sun’s disappearance. The three phases of twilight are displayed as well. On this chart, activity occurs in the western sky, except for the rising curves (circles) of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars. When they rise in the east at sunset, they are at opposition.
As 2020 opens, Venus is the bright Evening Star, appearing in the southwest. Mercury makes its best evening appearance, setting at the end of evening twilight during early February. Mercury’s June elongation is larger, but it sets several minutes before the end of twilight, making it difficult to observe in the brighter sky. After Venus moves past the Pleiades and Aldebaran, it moves toward Elnath (β Tauri), and then plunges toward its inferior conjunction. Jupiter and Saturn pass opposition during July. After Venus disappears from the evening sky, the slow procession of bright stars – Pollux, Regulus, Spica, and Antares – disappears into evening twilight. Jupiter and Saturn appear on the setting chart in late October, just after Mars reaches opposition. The moon has two interesting appearances with the planetary duo on November 19, 2020 and just days before the Jupiter- Saturn Great Conjunction on December 21, 2020.
The chart is calculated from data by the U.S. Naval Observatory, for Chicago, Illinois.
Key to symbols: White square, conjunction; yellow triangle, greatest elongation (GE); yellow diamond, greatest brightness (GB).