As Jupiter approaches opposition, the event when our planet Earth is between Jupiter and the sun. Jupiter and the sun are in opposite sides of the sky. Jupiter rises when the sun sets and Jupiter sets when the sun rises. Jupiter is in the south at midnight, when the sun is in the south at noon.
A few weeks before opposition, Jupiter appears in the evening and the morning sky. Here’s what’s to see depending on when you step outside to see it.
May 19: At 10:30 p.m. CDT, the moon, 15.2 days past its New phase and 98% illuminated, is nearly 7° to the upper right of Jupiter and almost 9° to the left of Antares in the southeastern sky.
May 20: At 11 p.m. CDT, the moon, 16.2 days old and 94% illuminated, is nearly 7° up in the southeast and 6.5° to the lower left of Jupiter.
By morning , the moon appears in the southwest.
May 20: At the beginning of morning twilight (about 4 a.m. CDT), the moon, 15.4 days old and 98% illuminated, is 4.6° to the right of Jupiter. The Giant planet is 24° up in the south-southwest.
May 21: At the beginning of morning twilight, the moon, 16.5 days old and 93% illuminated, is 25° up in the south and 8.2° to the left of Jupiter.
The moon moves past the morning planets — Jupiter and Saturn — during late April 2019. The chart above shows them about one hour before sunrise. Check your local sources — TV, newspaper, Internet — for your local sunrise time. Here are the highlights of the mornings:
April 22: At the beginning of morning twilight, the moon (17.0 days old. 90% illuminated), nearly 28° up in the south-southwest, is over 7° to the upper right of Antares.
April 23: At 12:30 a.m. CDT, the moon (17.9d, 90%), about 10° up in the southeast, is 2.8° to the upper right of Jupiter. At the beginning of morning twilight, the moon (18.0d, 82%) is 1.5° to the upper right of Jupiter, 25° up in the south. Saturn is 20° up in the south-southeast, about 26° east of Jupiter.
April 24: At the beginning of morning twilight, the moon (19.0d, 74%) is nearly between Jupiter and Saturn. The moon is at the top of the lid of the Teapot of Sagittarius, above Kaus Borealis.
April 25: At the beginning of morning twilight, now 105 minutes before sunrise, the moon (20.0d, 65%) is 2.7° to the lower right of Saturn.
April 26: At the beginning of morning twilight, the moon (21.0d, 55%) is 9.8° to the lower left of Saturn.
During late March, the moon glides past morning planets Jupiter and Saturn. The chart above shows the scene about 45 minutes before sunrise. Check your newspaper, television weather, or Internet source for the time of your local sunrise. These observations are not time sensitive because the moon and planets are higher in the sky than earlier in the year.
Step outside before sunrise and look south. Bright Jupiter is there about one-third of the way up in the sky. Saturn is about 25° to the lower left of Jupiter. Here’s what to look for:
March 26: This morning, the waning gibbous moon that is 68% illuminated is nearly 9° to the upper right of bright Jupiter
March 27: This morning. the nearly last quarter moon that is nearly 60% illuminated is over 4° to the left of Jupiter. Notice the distance that the moon moved from yesterday. With a binocular notice that the day-night line (terminator) on the moon is slightly convex – bowed outward.
March 28: At the beginning of morning twilight, the thick crescent moon that is 48% illuminated, 19° up in the south-southeast, is 9° to the right of Saturn. This morning the terminator is slightly concave – bowed in.
March 29: This morning, the moon that is 38% illuminated, 14° up in the southeast, is about 3° to the lower left of Saturn. Notice the amount the moon phase shrank during these mornings.
More about measurements. Degrees (°) are used in astronomy to measure separation of celestial objects and sizes of objects as they appear to us, not their real sizes, their apparent sizes. One-half degree is the apparent size of the moon. The next time you see the moon in the sky, extend your arm and then your pointer finger. The tip of the finger, with the finger nail, covers the moon. Your fist extended toward the sky covers about 10°. So, on March 26, the distance between the moon and Jupiter is about the distance across your fist. The next morning about three knuckles is the distance between the moon and Jupiter.
On a recent trip to a more southerly latitude, the morning planets presented themselves high in the sky. This album shows them on the mornings of February 28, March 1, and March 2, 2019. When travelling farther south, the southern stars and planets appear higher in the southern sky.
Brilliant Morning Star Venus, now appearing low in the southeast, shines during morning twilight with Saturn and Jupiter. The Venus-Saturn gap is 15 degrees. Jupiter is farther toward the south, over 25 degrees to the upper right of Saturn.
The moon joins the morning display of planets. The moon is slightly gibbous and reaches its last quarter this morning. The Imbrium Basin, is at the top of the moon near the terminator, the day-night line. Copernicus, the bright spot below Imbrium, is an impact crater. The moon is near 27 degrees to the upper right of Jupiter.
The planets are farther east. Brilliant Morning Star Venus is well past Saturn, about 7.5 degrees. Venus continues moving away from Saturn and the RInged Wonder appears slightly higher in the sky each morning.
Jupiter is nearly 26 degrees to the upper right of Saturn.