2022, October 23:  Saturn’s Retrograde Ends, Goodbye, Mercury!


October 23, 2022: Saturn’s retrograde or westward trek ends today in front of the stars of eastern Capricornus.  Mercury departs the sky after its best morning appearance of the year.

Photo Caption: Saturn (NASA)


by Jeffrey L. Hunt

Chicago, Illinois:  Sunrise, 7:12 a.m. CDT; Sunset, 5:57 p.m. CDT.  Check local sources for sunrise and sunset times for your location.

Saturn’s retrograde ends tonight.  The planet stops its westward motion.  Because it seems to move so slowly, it won’t appear to move eastward very far during the next week. Earth has moved far enough so that the line of sight from our world to Saturn stops moving westward and begins to go eastward again.

Chart Caption – 2022, October 23: Through a binocular, Saturn is near Iota Capricorni (ι Cap).

The planet’s retrograde ends about 0.5° to the east of Iota Capricorni (ι Cap on the chart).  Sky watchers away from bright street lights should be able to see the star as well as Deneb Algedi and Nashira.  In urban and suburban settings, use a binocular to see Saturn with the starfield.

After sundown, find the Ringed Wonder in the south-southeast.

Here is today’s planet forecast:

Morning Sky


Chart Caption – 2022, October 23: Mars is high in the southwestern sky before daybreak, above the horns of Taurus.

Bright Mars is high in the southwestern sky before sunrise.  Look about an hour before the sun appears.  The Red Planet is above an imaginary line that connects the Bull’s horns – Elnath and Zeta Tauri.


The planet slows before reversing its direction in a week, beginning to retrograde.  Unlike slowpoke Saturn, Mars’ motion is obvious without a binocular, after it seems to pause.

The planet passes between the horns again on November 13th.  It continues to brighten, exceeding Sirius’ intensity from mid-October through mid-December.  Mars does not grow brighter than Jupiter.

Chart Caption – 2022, October 23: The moon and challenging-to-see Mercury are in the eastern sky as dawn approaches. Arcturus is in the east-northeast.

At this hour, the crescent moon, 4% illuminated, is over 10° above the eastern horizon. Twenty minutes later the moon is slightly higher in the brighter sky.  Bright Mercury is near the horizon, 13.0° to the lower left of the lunar crescent, too far apart to fit the same binocular field.

Although the planet is brighter than Mars, it is low in the sky and a challenge to see.  It becomes more difficult to see until it reappears in the evening sky later during December.  So, for this appearance, we say “Goodbye, Mercury!”

At this time, Arcturus is less than 10° up in the east-northeast.

 Evening Sky

Chart Caption – 2022, October 23: Jupiter and Saturn are in the southeastern sky after sunset.

Bright Jupiter and Saturn are in the southeastern sky after sundown.  Jupiter is “that bright star” in the east-southeast as night falls.  It is retrograding against a very dim starfield in Pisces.  This continues into November.

Saturn is to the upper right of Jupiter, about one-third of the way up in the south-southeast.  As noted above, its retrograde ends in front of eastern Capricornus.

During the night, the planets and stars seem to move westward from Earth’s rotation.  The Ringed Wonder is in the south about two hours after sundown.  Jupiter is south and highest in the sky about five hours after sunset and before midnight.  At this time, Mars is in the east-northeast and Saturn is in the southwest – along a long arc that hangs three bright planets.

During the night Saturn sets six hours before sunrise and Jupiter follows about two hours before sunrise, leaving Mars high in the southwest during morning twilight.



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